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E. Coli


E Coli, is a Gram-Negative , rod-shaped bacterium discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1885, and was named after him in 1919. Escherichia Coli bacteria commonly live in the intestine of people and animals. Most of the E. Coli bacterias are not dangerous to the people. But there are some E Coli strains can cause sorious pood poisoning and in some cases can cause severe diarrhea.

The bacterium has ability to survive outside the body for a limited of time. Escherichia Coli cell are about 2.0 micrometres long and 0.5 micrometres in diameter. It has volume of 0.6 - 0.7 micrometres3. One of E. Coli strain, known as Mutaflor ( E Coli strain Nissle 1917) is used as a probiotic agent in medicine for the treatment of various gastroenterological diseases.

Some strains of E Coli can cause Urinary Tracy infection, Neonatal meningitisl, severe and fatal diarrhea. E. Coli O157:H7 is one of them. This strain can cause very severe, bloody diarrhea. Often followed by serious multiple organ system damage such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Eating unwashed vegetable or undercooked meat is common cause of food poisoning by E. Coli.

Signs and symptoms of Escherichia Coli strain O157:H7 commonly begin about 3 or 4 days after exposure to bacteria. Signs and symptoms include severe diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain. Most patients recover within 10 days, although in a few cases the diseases may become life-threatening.

There are no spesivic drugs for this kind illnes of E. Coli. The best treatment for the patients with E. Coli infection is to rest and rehydration or drink plenty of fluid. Prevention is the best way to avoid people from E.Coli-based illnes. Always live in healthy way, wash your hand, keep raw food seperate, wash raw food, eat completely cooked meat.

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posted by faku @ 1:39 PM, ,





Diabetes Mellitus


What is Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is one of the disease that caused high number of mortality. What is diabetes mellitus? According to WHO, Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or alternatively, when the body can not effectively use the insulin it produces. In 2005 alone, an estimated 1.1 million people in the world died from diabetes. This number projected will be increase by more than 50% in the next 10 years without urgent action.

Diabetes can occur to anybody in any age and any country, not only in the rich and modern country but also in poor and low income country. Based on WHO's data, mortality rate related to diabetes in low and middle-income countries is higher than upper-middle income countries.

What causes Diabetes?

Every human being need sugar in their body to use it as energy. But, the blood sugar level should be controlled in the normal range. That is main role of insulin hormone that produced by pancreas. In some condition, pancreas totally cannot produce insulin or it not enough to comply with body requirement. The other cause of diabetes is inability of the cells to use insulin properly and efficiently. These are two main cause that lead to hyperglycemia or high level sugar in the blood stream develops.

Types of Diabetes

There are two types of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes formerly known as IDDM (insuline Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) or juvenile-onset diabetes. This type of diabetes usually develop in the early age, because of large part or totally from insuline producing cell of pancreas destroyed. The insuline production very little or totally stop. Patient need daily administration of insulin, otherwise will rapidly fatal. Type 1 diabetes has only about 10% from total diabetes patient.

Type 2 diabetes formerly known as NIDDM (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) or adult-onset diabetes. Different with type 1, this diabetes causes by ineffective use of insulin. The pancreas still produces enough of insulin. Largerly the result of obesity or excess body weight and physical inactivity. Continuing corticosteroid therapy can also leads to type 2 diabetes. Some people with excess growth hormone or with tumor may also develop diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglaecimia that first detected during pregnancy period.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Symptoms include polyuria or excessive excretion of urine, weight loss, polydipsia or thirst, constant hunger, vision change, blur, fatigue. In the type 1 diabetes, these symptom may occur suddenly. In the type 2 diabetes, people usually did not realize that they have diabetes. It may be diagnosed several years after onset with many complication already present.

Diabetes usually diagnosed with blood sugar level test.

The normal blood sugar level range from 70 to 100 milligrams of sugar per deciliter of blood (mg/dl) or 3.9 to 5.6 millimoles of sugar per liter of blood (mmol/L) after at least eight hours fasting. If you check your blood sugar level at any time after meal, snack or beverage, your blood sugar level should not more than 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/L. The last methode to test the blood sugar is an oral glucose tolerance test, in which your fasting blood sugar will be measure. Then you drink a sugary solution, only after two hours your blood sugar level will be check again. The normal level is lower than 140 mg/dL or 7.8 mmol/L.

Pre Diabetes
Fasting blood sugar : 100 - 125 mg/dL (5.6 - 6.9 mmol/L)
Random blood sugar : 140 -199 mg/dL (7.8- 11 mmol/L)
Oral glucose tolerance : 140 - 199 mg/dL (7.8 - 11 mg/dL)

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Fasting blood sugar : 100 - 125 mg/dL (5.6 - 6.9 mmol/L)
Random blood sugar : 200 mg/dL (11.1 mg/dL) or higher
Oral glucose tolerance : 200 mg/dL (11.1 mg/dL) or higher

Further test may required to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors

Obesity or excess body weight is the main risk factor for diabetes. Obese people need very big amount of insulin to maintains their blood sugar level in the normal range. Approximately 80 - 90% people with diabetes are obese.
Prolonged hydrocortisone treatment, pancreas diseases, pregnancy, tumors, and agromegaly ( excess of growth hormone) also can lead to diabetes.

Complications

Prolonged high blood sugar level or diabetes mostly will cause other diseases in connection with blood vessels. Hyperglaecimia over a long time cause narrowing either big or small blood vessels. As the result is decreasing blood flow in the big or small blood vessels and atherosclerosis. Over time, poor circulation and high level of blood sugar can harm the brain, eyes, arms, heart, kidneys, legs, skin and nerves.

Stroke, blur vision, diabetic retinopathy, blind, many cases of heart diseases such as angina, heart failure, kidney failure, skin infections, prolonged time of healing, and even amputation of the foot or part of the leg. The arm or leg become weak, as the result of single nerve malfunction. Loss of sensation that lead to repeated injuries to the hands, legs and feet because people cannot feel pain, hot, cold and even pressure.

Very high blood sugar sometimes cause excessive urination that lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. It is a medical emergency because it can cause coma and death. Rehydration with large amount of fluids must given intravenously along with electrolytes to replace loss fluids. Level of blood sugar, electrolytes and ketones are measuring periodically until goal's level achieved.

Treatment and prevention

The main goal in diabetes treatment is to maintain blood sugar level in the normal range. It include combination of education, exercise, diet and use of drugs for most people.
With learning and aware about diabetes and it's complication, people will get enough knowledge about diabetes management. They will understand what should do and not to do in order to maintain normal blood sugar level, and avoid complications. Actively life with exercise, balanced diet and efforts to maintain a healthy weight. Bassically, people should not eat excess sweet in their daily diet. Dietitian advice may needed to develop an optimal eating plan.

Drugs treatment for type 1 diabetes is a must. But with maintaining healthy weight and healthy active lifestyle, they may be able to avoid the need of larger doses of insulin. And for type 2 diabetes, they may no need to take an insulin or any diabetes pills if they can maintain healthy weight and lifestyle.

Physician will prescribe you the insuline type that you should take once, twice or even three times daily. There are four major types of insuline : rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting and long acting insuline. Differentiate between that four type of insuline is only based on it's acting time. There are so many oral medication for diabetes. These oral medication are taken as a single treatment or sometimes combined with insuline. The medications work in several different ways include : increase insulin production, reduce blood sugar production, inhibit blood sugar absorption and improve effectiveness of body's natural insuline.

At the end, preventive action is better to keep people from diabetes. Eating healthy diet, be physically active, control your body weight, and relax your mind seems helpful to prevent diabetes.

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posted by faku @ 1:30 PM, ,





Hypertension


Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure is a medical condition in which the blood pressure is chronically elevated because of blood presses against the walls of the blood vessels with to much force. Hypertension is already a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor worldwide because of increasing longevity and prevalence of contributing factors such as obesity. Hypertension or high blood pressure for a long period is a serious condition that can lead coronary heart diseases, stroke, kidney failure, heart failure.

Risk Factors

Are you at risk? Take a look who is at risk of getting hypertension and risk factors that can cause hypertension. The risk of high blood pressure increases as your age, hypertension is particularly common among black people often developing in early age than it does in white, obesity or overweight people and tends to run in families. No medical science understand why most cases of hypertension occur. But we can prevent with controlled unhealthy lifestyle such as : Signs and Symptoms

According to update statistic, about one in three adult in USA has high blood pressure. But most of them don't know that they have hypertension. Many people have hypertension or high blood pressure for years without realising that. There are no specific signs and symptom of hypertension. In some cases, rarely dull headaches may occur, dull headaches, dizzy spells or a few more nosebleeds than normal.

Diagnosis and Classification

A doctor will diagnose hypertension or high blood pressure with sphygmomanometer blood pressure cuff). It measures tw0 kind of number : high number as the pressure while the heart is beating, known as systolic, the lower number as the pressure when the heart is resting between beats (Diastolic).

The US's National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute divide blood pressure measurements into four categories :
  • Normal Blood Pressure. You have a normal blood pressure if it is below 120/80 mmHg.
  • Prehypertension. If your systolic blood pressure ranging from 120 - 139 mmHg, or your diastolic blood pressure ranging from 80 - 89 mmHg.
  • Stage 1 Hypertension. stage 1 hypertension is systolic pressure ranging from 140 - 159 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ranging from 90 - 99 mmHg.
  • Stage 2 hypertension. Stage 2 hypertension is a systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg and higher, or a diastolic blood pressure of 100 mmHg and higher.
Treatments and Preventions

If the patient has borderline hypertension, the physician may not prescribe a medication but may ask the patient to do one or more of the following to prevent or control their blood pressure :
  • Quit smoking
  • Eat a healthy, well balance diet
  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Reduce the amount of fatty foods
  • Lower the intake of salt and salty food
  • Limit or stop alcohol intake
  • Begin a regular exercise program
  • Have the blood pressure checked regularly
  • Take time to relax and reduce the stress in your life
  • Faithfully take the hypertension medication
Many medications are available that help reduce and maintain blood pressure at the normal level : Beta blockers, Diuretics, ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin antagonists, Calcium channel blockers, Alpha-blockers, Alpha-beta-blockers, Nervous system inhibitors, Vasodilators.
Obey and don't disrupt your hypertension medication that your physician prescribed to you.

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posted by faku @ 12:29 PM, ,